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Aditya Hrdayam Again - Part 50 - saMkhya as a design pattern


Eleven Rudras are eleven force-fields that manifested in this Universe at different points of time. Of these eleven, we saw the Pancha-Brahma Rudras, the color coded ones, the Strong force, Weak force, Electro-weak force, Electro-weak-Strong force and Electromagnetic force.

The other six Rudras are Higgs scalar field, Unified dark-matter and higgs field,  Dark Matter field, Dirac-fermi field,  Dark-Energy scalar field and the field of fifth dimension of space which I call as Quantum Entanglement field.

The above is a bit non-standard model. The following force fields are not part of standard model
1.      Unified dark matter-Higgs
2.      Dark matter force-field
3.      Dark energy scalar field
4.      Quantum Entanglement field (a 5th dimension of space).

How do we understand the dark-matter and higgs field better..?

That leads us to saMkhya who talks of Purusha (Unified dark matter and higgs) and Prakrti (matter). In the next several blogs, let me go through saMkhya kArika of Isvara krishna  with tattva kaumudi of Vacaspati Misra.

Let me go through saMkhya as a design pattern first, then summary of the kArika and each and every sloka in the kArika

A short summary of the design pattern

saMkhya describes the evolution of Universal matter, biological beings with 24 principles. They are

1. Trigunas of Entropy (Sattva), Change in Enthalpy/Work done (Rajas) and Negentropy (Tamas).

  1. Prakrti is in which entropy and negentropy balances each other, there is no change in enthalpy and hence the Universe was in equilibrium. 
  2. Mahat is one in which entropy acquires preponderance, triggering the evolution. 
  3. AhamkAra is one in which Change in Enthalpy starts. 
  4. Instead of trigunas, the first three principles can also be stated as Prakrti, Mahat, AhamkAra. Both are same 

2. Five Organs of Entropy (Buddhi indriya) in Universal matter as well as biological beings

3. Five organs of Change in Enthalpy/Work (Karma Indriya) in Universal matter as well as biological beings

4. Manas or At-manas (these are 'virtual') which 'binds' these organs of entropy and change in enthalpy in Universal matter as well as biological beings.

5. Five 'measures' (tanmAtra) which differentiate Energy to create five different energy potentials. These five measures create the differentiation by giving different preponderances of entropy, change in enthalpy and negentropy in the five different energy potentials. Five tanmAtras manifest as five different cell types in biological beings, which lead to five organ systems

6. These five energy potentials absorbed, locked and released in matter creates Five forms of matter (pancha Bhuta). Five organ systems process the five forms of matter (solid, liquid, gas, plasma, Bosonic matter) in biological beings.

7. Entropy, Change in Enthalpy and Negentropy acting on the pancha-bhutas and in biological beings drive all the evolution.

8. These 24 (3 gunas (entropy, change in enthalpy, negentropy), 5 entropy organs, 5 work/change in enthalpy organs, 5 measures that differentiate energy/cell types, 5 forms of matter/organ systems and 1 Manas/At-manas which is virtual and binds all of them) are the design pattern principles of saMkhya.

saMkhya as design pattern

“sankhyam prakurvate ca iva prakRtiksa pracakSate
Catur vimsati tattvani tena sAnkhyAh prakirtitah”

The above verse illustrates what is Sankhya.  

That does/performs  (prakurvate) and ‘on which work  is being done’ (prakrti) tells/declares (pracaksate) SaMkhya, 24 principles (catur vimsati tattvani)  that (tena) is the declaration of sAnkhya (sAnkhyah prakirtitah).

In essence, saMkhya, which is ‘knowing the whole’ declares that there are 24 principles around anything that does/performs and on which something is done.

The design pattern of Universe and human beings are explained by this 24 principles.

1.      Universe and human beings are made of eleven indriyanis (organs), five vrttis/tanmAtras (which are five energy vortices that get differentiated due to five measures)  from which arises the five bhutas (matter). These 21 (11 organs, 5 tanmAtras and 5 bhutas/matter forms) are controlled by the three gunas of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.  These 24 make up the design principle of saMkhya.

2.                  Another way of seeing the above is, instead of the three gunas, count Prakrti, Mahat and AhamkAra. But both are same.
    1. Prakrti represents the balance of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas. 
    2. Mahat represents preponderance of Sattva
    3. AhamkAra represents preponderance of  Rajas

3.                  All particles of Universe reside on Linga, the Energy-Momentum relationship, which is called ‘on-shell’ or real particles, in Quantum physics parlance.  These ‘real’ particles follow the laws of Universe as we see it now.  The real particles are called ‘nara’.

4.                  There are those particles which do not reside on this Linga, the Energy-Momentum relationship. They are called ‘off-the-shell’ or ‘virtual’ particles in Quantum physics parlance. Some of these virtual particles can be ‘extremely virtual’ based on how much they are off-the-shell.   The virtual particles are called ‘manas’. Extremely virtual particles are called ‘At-manas’.

5.                  We assume that these virtual particles ‘mediate’ some of our forces and ‘bind’ the matter.  The off-the-shell or virtual particles can be our ‘understanding gap’, can be a mathematical assumption. They don’t exist as they won’t follow the laws of Universe as we see it. But without them, our understanding of Universe is not complete.

4.                  Of the Eleven Indriyanis one organ is ‘manas’ or ‘At-manas’.  ‘Manas’ is something ‘virtual’ which does not reside on the Linga.  At-manas is extremely virtual that does not reside on the Linga. Linga is Energy-Momentum relationship that all particles of Universe follow.

5.                  All Universal matter and biological beings are supposed to be bound by the Manas (virtual) or At-manas (extremely virtual), under whose guidance the evolution takes place. This manas or Atmanas is the first principle of saMkhya’s design pattern.

6.                  The next 3 principles are the tri-gunas, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas.

a.                   Sattva is Entropy which means more information, more dis-order and Radiation and detachment.

b.                  Rajas is ‘Work done’, which is change in enthalpy.

c.                   Tamas is ‘negentropy’, the opposite of Sattva, which means less information, more order and attachment.

d.                  All matter in the Universe and biological beings are subjected to this Entropy, Change in Enthalpy (work done) and negentropy.

7.                  These three principles of Entropy, Change in Enthalpy/Work done and negEntropy operate on all Universal matter and biological beings and guide the evolution.

8.                  Sattva, Rajas and Tamas

    1. Sattva  has more uncertain microscopic states (laghu) and giving out/detaching (prakAsam).

    1. Rajas is holding (upasthambakam) and flowing (calam).

    1. Tamas reduces uncertain microscopic states (guru) and enveloping/non-radiation (varanakam). (A guru is one who reduces uncertainties and brings more order).

9.                  In Universal matter evolution with At-manas

    1. Sattva guna, the entropy leads to Creation (Atmada) of more and more information/disorder  and radiation/giving away (prakAsam).  

    1. In human being evolution with manas, Sattva guna leads to more information processing which is more buddhi and more diversity  due to detachment. Thus entropy leads to creation and diversity.

10.              In Universal matter evolution with At-manas,

    1. Rajas, the work done or change in enthalpy  manifests as  potential (upasthambakam) and kinetic (calam). The ‘work done’ or change in enthalpy is stored either as potential or kinetic energy in matter.  

    1. In human being evolution with manas, Rajas is Karma, work done or action done.  It becomes priti (excitation/kinetic) and apriti (non-excitation/potential). The priti and apriti leads to adaptability.

11.              In  Universal matter evolution with At-manas,

    1. Tamas, the negentropy is annihilation (visada) and non-radiation (varanakam).

    1. In biological beings with manas, it is ignorance (mUDha) and attachment (pravrtti). Ignorance/mUDha is less information (less microscopic states). Pravrtti/attachment leads to less dis-order, more order and less information. Annihilation means less microscopic states.

12.              The next five principles are ‘Indriyanis’ or ‘organs’ of Entropy (the Sattva guna) or organs of the ‘Buddhi’.

13.              Entropy or Information in a system is of five types.  

a.                   Joint Entropy

b.                  Conditional Entropy

c.                   Relative Entropy

d.                  Mutual information.  

e.                   A set of chain rules around these entropies specify how various information can be combined and becomes a single system of information.

f.                   In Universal matter evolution with At-manas or biological evolution with manas, there are five organs of entropy corresponding to the five above.

14.              The joint entropy measures adding up of uncertainty/information in systems which can be added/processed together.

    1. In the Universal matter with At-manas, hadrons combine and form baryons and mesons. That’s the joint entropy.

    1. In human beings with manas, sight information/video/cakSu is processed along with other information sound, touch, taste, smell etc..

    1. Hadrons  and Eye/sight symbolize the joint entropy.  

15.              The conditional entropy is a measure of how much uncertainty/information is known of one  when we know the value of another . Conditional entropy is like zrotram (ear/hearing).

    1. In biological beings with manas, with audio/hearing information, some amount of video, touch, smell, taste  information can be inferred by the being.

    1. In the Universal matter with At-manas, with information on nucleus, some amount of information on hadrons that make the nucleons, electrons that surround the nucleons can be known.

    1. Nucleons and Ear symbolize the conditional entropy.

16.              The mutual information is a measure of convergence (how much information is shared) between systems.  

    1. Taste and Odour share mutual information. In particular, taste is enhanced and aided by odor. It shares mutual information with odor.

    1. This taste is rasana in biological beings with manas.

    1. In universal matter with At-manas, molecules (and their bonds that form the molecules) share mutual information with atomic bonds.

    1. Molecules and taste/tongue  symbolize the mutual information.

17.              The relative entropy is a measure of divergence between information of systems.  

    1. While taste is enhanced by Odor, Odor is not affected by taste. There is a degree of divergence there. Thats the relative entropy in biological beings with manas.

    1.  The bond between nucleus and electrons, the atomic bonds contribute to molecular bonds. But they are not affected by the bonds at molecular level.

    1. Atoms and Odor/nose symbolize the Relative entropy.

18.              The Chain rules provide rules to combine systems of joint, conditional, relative entropies. The chain rules provide an integrated view of single system entropy from outside.  

    1. This is what Skin does in biological beings with manas. It chains several of the organs inside and provides an integrated view of a being.

    1. In universal matter with At-manas, complex compounds that combines molecules in different ways provide the ‘skin’ of matter.

    1. Skin (tvac) and Chemical compounds symbolize the chain rules of entropy.

19.              Information organs

    1. The Eyes, Ears, Nose, Tongue are information processing organs for Sight, hearing, Odor and Taste, which evolves the overall information processing or buddhi.  The skin is the organ ‘chaining’ them all and creating an outside view.  It also conveys the sense of touch as information. Hence these five become information processing organs or organs of entropy.

    1. The hadrons, nucleus, atoms and molecules are processing organs for binding energies, which evolves the overall entropy (information or disorder) of the Universe.  Compounds chain them all and create an outside view. All these five are ‘basic’ information storage or dis-order storage systems of Universe.

20.              The next five principles are ‘indriyanis’ or organs of Work done or change in Enthalpy or organs of ‘Karma’ (Rajas guna).

21.              The design principle of Karma, which is work done or change in enthalpy is based on five aspects.  
1.      Physical movement of a body which is change in spatial position

2.      Spatial expansion  of a body, which is change in Pressure * volume

3.      Change in temperature of a body which is average kinetic energy

4.      Change in atomic/molecular binding energies due to electric charges

5.      Change in nuclear binding energy due to strong force

22.              Physical Movement of a body in space, where in the whole body moves in space is a type of work done.  

    1. In biological beings with manas, the physical movement is facilitated by legs.  

    1. In universal matter with At-manas, the physical movement of matter on space happens due to spacetime warping (gravity).

    1. This gravitational work is called pAda.

23.              Spatial expansion of body due to change in pressure and volume is a type of work done.

    1. In biological beings with manas, this spatial expansion manifests as ‘excretion’ or ‘flow of juices’.  pAyu is an excretion organ. payas is flow (of juices, sap, milk etc).

    1. In universal matter with mans, the spatial expansion happens due to chemical changes causing change in pressure and volume of substance. This chemical work is called pAyu.

24.              Change in binding energy  from strong force that results in formation of different  atomic nucleus is a type of work done.  

    1. This is the ‘middle’ or ‘near-center’ part that is the trunk of all universal matter.  Hence it is called upa-sthA.  

    1. In biological beings with manas, the abdomen region is the middle part that holds the generative and procreative functions.

    1. This work done due to strong force is upasthA.

25.              Change in binding energy from charges that results in formation of different atoms and molecules is a type of work done.  

    1. These atomic and molecular bondings are like ‘hands’ that help to do ‘work’, as most work in the Universal matter is done through these bondings.  

    1. These are based on ‘Charges’ or attraction between positive electric charge and negative electric charge.

    1. This Electrical/magnetic work is called pAni.

26.              Change in average kinetic energy, the temperature is a type of work done. These kinetic energy changes manifest as vibrations of particles of matter.

    1. In Universal matter this increasing vibrations is called ‘heat’.

    1. In biological beings these vibrations manifest as ‘vac’ or ‘speech’. Speech is a form of work that is only vibrations, much like heat.

    1. This thermal work is called ‘Vac’, the speech.

27.              If Manas of a human being is surrounded by Organs of Buddhi (eyes, ears, nose, tongue, skin) and organs of Karma (hands, legs, reproduction/digestion, speech, excretion), then At-Manas of Universal matter is surrounded by organs of entropy (hadrons, nucleus, atoms, molecules, compounds) and organs of ‘work done’ (Gravitational work, Chemical work, Work due to strong force binding energy, work due to charges and thermal work).

28.              Of these  Karma or work done,  the work done in speech (in human beings)  or heat (in universal matter) manifest only as vibrations. Other work done types like Gravitation/spacetime warping, Chemical, Binding caused by strong force, Binding caused by electromagnetic force manifest on particles of matter.

29.              The next five principles are about Vrtti and five tanmAtras. Vrtti are energy vortices or more precisely energy distributions. Vrtti, the energy distribution or energy vortex is differentiated by five measures (tanmAtras) and manifest as five different energy vortices.

30.              The five Vrttis or energy vortices or energy distributions are

    1. Internal Energy, U, as in thermodynamic potential
      1. Internal Energy is called Vacana, the energy for expression.

    1. Unavailable Energy, T*S,  Temperature * Entropy,  as in Helmholtz potential.
      1. Unavailable energy is called adAna, the energy not given.

    1. Work done Energy of Pressure * Volume  as in Enthalpy
      1. Work done energy is called viharana, the energy to expand.

    1. Available Energy which is U+PV-TS, Gibbs potential
      1. Available energy is called utsarga the one to be excreted out for further creation.

    1. Zero point Energy, energy of particles in ground state.
      1. Zero point energy is called ‘Ananda’, the ground state.

31.              The five Vrttis are differentiations (viseshas)  of energy based on the five tanmAtras or five measures.  The five tanmAtras are
    1. Pressure
    2. Volume
    3. Temperature
    4. Entropy
    5. Internal Energy

32.              The five measures that differentiate the vrtti are based on the trigunas.
    1. Entropy (more microscopic states) is Sattva.
    2. Internal Energy is Tamas (less microscopic states).
    3. Temperature (average kinetic energy) is Rajas.
    4. Pressure and 
    5. Volume are also part of work done and Rajas.

33.              On the Zero-point energy of particle (ground state), work is done by increasing pressure, volume, temperature, entropy.

    1. When Entropy alone increases and is a stable system it is internal energy or Vacana.  
    2. On this Vacana, the expressed energy, when pressure and volume increases it becomes Work done energy or Viharana.
    3. On this Vacana, the expressed energy, when Temperature and entropy increases it is unavailable energy or adAna.
    4. On this Vacana when pressure, volume, temperature and entropy changes, the system gets energy to be excreted out called utsarga, which can be used for further creation.

34.              Thus the five tanmAtras, the five measures as above, differentiates the Vrtti (energy).

35.              In biological beings with manas also, these five energy vortices exist.  They are called vyAna, apAna, prAna, samAna and udAna.

    1. prAna is the internal energy.
    2. apAna is the unavailable energy.
    3. vyAna is the work-done/circulatory energy.
    4. samAna is the available energy.
    5. udAna is the zero point energy.

36.              In biological beings, the mapping of these to organ systems is

    1. prAna, the internal energy is the Respiratory system (Lungs) that provides oxygen. Oxygen metabolism helps in releasing large energies required for large beings.
    2. apAna, the un-available energy  is the renal/excretory system (Kidneys).
    3. vyAna the work-done energy to circulate the energy to more spaces is the circulatory system (Heart).
    4. samAna, the excess available energy produced from reactions is digestive system (Stomach).
    5. udAna, the zero point energy is Central nervous system is the Consciousness keeper (Brain)  
    6. udAna the Central Nervous system is said to be the father of vyAna, the Circulatory system. The son of vyAna, the circulatory system is said to be apAna the renal/excretort system.
    7. udAna is more a 'signaling system' that could be electric or chemical signaling system than a nervous system. Hence it could actually include endocrinal/exocrinal harmone systems too in it. This 'signaling system' is the fundamental for any biological being. Evolution of this signaling system differentiates a living and non-living entity.
    8. Like zero point energy making up all the fundamental particles, the zero-point energy or base of any biological/living being is the signaling system of udAna.
    9. If udAna is the signaling system, what evolves from it is the 'energy transport' mechanism to circulate the energy to more spaces. This expansion of energy, energy transport mechanism is vyAna. Hence it is the son of udAna
    10. If vyAna is the energy transport mechanism to expand the energy to more spaces, then there has to be a mechanism for removing residues or wastes. That is the excretion/renal system. Hence it is the apAna.  Hence apAna is the son of vyAna.
    11. In advanced beings which digest solids, samAna, the digestive system evolves.
    12. In all beings that use oxygen combustion for releasing large amounts of energy, prAna, the respiratory system evolves.
    13. So the mapping of prAna, vyAna, apAna, udAna to samAna is not precisely the organ system, but more to the functionality of the organ system.

37.              In biological beings, the five tanmAtras or measures that differentiate the organ systems are
    1. Level of consciousness (equivalent to entropy in matter)
    2. Catabolism/breaking down (equivalent to pressure in matter)
    3. Anabolism/growth (equivalent to volume in matter)
    4. Homeo-stasis/constancy (equivalent to temperature in matter)
    5. Biological structures (cells) (equivalent to internal energy in matter)
38.              In the Universal matter that evolves under At-manas,  the five measures, tanmAtras, gives rise to the pancha-bhutas or five states of matter. The five states of matter are

      1. Solid (prthvi)

      1. Liquid (jal)

      1. Gas (vAyu)

      1. Plasma (Agni)

      1. Bosonic matter (Boson Einstein Condensate) (akAsh).

      1. Of these plasma is a fluid (liquid or gas) in which either corpuscles or positive/negative ions are suspended.

39.              In biological systems, the panch-bhutas manifest in this way

      1. Those that processes solid, digestive system, samAna

      1. Those that processes liquid, Renal/excretory system, apAna

      1. Those that processes gas, respiratory system, prAna

      1. Those that processes plasma, circulatory system, vyAna

      1. Those that processes virtual photons mediated charges, Central nervous system, udAna

40.              The Energy vortices in Universal matter and human beings are related in this way

      1. prAna, the internal energy, the respiratory system corresponds to ‘gas’ as it processes gas.

      1. apAna the un-available energy, .the Renal system corresponds to ‘liquid’ as it processes liquids, 

      1. vyAna, the available energy, the circulatory system corresponds to ‘plasma’ as it processes plasma.
      1. samAna, the work-done energy, the digestive system corresponds to ‘solid’ as it processes solids

      1. udAna, the zero-point energy, the central nervous system,  corresponds to Bosonic matter form as it processes electric signals (virtual photons).

      1. These electric signals are our ‘thoughts’ to some extent.

41.              In Universal matter

    1. Excess available gibbs energy (samAna),    work done expansion/circulatory energy (vyAna), un-available energy (apAna) are peculiar as they are self-characterized/involuntary (sva-lakshanya or involuntary) in the system. They are result of external reactions.
    2. zero-point energy (udAna) and  internal energy (prAna) are internal to system and are part voluntary.
            In biological beings

      1. Digestive system (samAna), vyAna, Circulatory system (corresponding to available energy), apAna the renal system (corresponding to un-available energy) are involuntary (sva-alakshanya) in a biological being.
      2. The PrAna, the respiratory system  (corresponding to internal energy) and central nervous system (udAna) are partly voluntary.

42.              The pancha-bhutas, the five states of matter in Universal matter, the five organ systems that processes the five states of matter in biological systems can be in

      1. Equilibrium (shAnta)

      1. dis-equilibrium (ghora)

      1. non-equilibrium (mUDha).

43.              Equilibrium is satvva (shAnta). Dis-equilibrium is Rajas (ghora). Non-equilibrium is Tamas (mUDha).  

    1. Equilibrium is when entropy is maximum for a given system.

    1. Dis-equilibrium is when system is not at maximum entropy but going towards it.

    1. Non-equilibrium is when a system is not at maximum entropy, but continues to be at it.

44.              In Universal matter,

1.      When states of matter is in equilibrium, it means all part of matter are in the same information state (same phase).

2.      When in dis-equilibrium, matter may have different phases but going towards a single phase.

3.      When in non-equilibrium, matter has different phases and will continue to be same.

45.              In biological beings

1.      When organs of biological beings are in equilibrium, they are functioning with all information. They are disease free.

2.      When organs of biological beings are in dis-equilibrium,  it means they are not functioning with full information, but they are going towards full information. They are having a dosha, imbalance and recovering.

3.      When organs of biological beings are in non-equilibrium, it means they are functioning with incomplete information and continue in that state, they are having a roga, diseased and performing degraded.

46.              This part is not in saMkhya KArika, but my extrapolation with ayurveda. The doshas are of three types.

1.      vAta dosha (gas, vAyu) means imbalance in the body that affects the functioning of lungs/respiratory system with incomplete information.

2.      Pitta dosha (liquid, Jal) means imbalance in body that affects the functioning renal system or kidneys with incomplete information.

3.      Kapha dosha (Plasma, Agni) means imbalance that affects the functioning of circulatory system or heart with incomplete information.

4.      Any imbalance in body when it affects one or more of these three systems (hearts, lungs, kidneys) it means body is diseased.

5.      Any ailment in the body actually affects one of these three to stop the functioning of the body.

6.      But these systems are involuntary.  

7.      The only two partly voluntary systems are the digestive system  (food and medicines) and central nervous system (good thoughts).  With these two systems one can intervene and remove the non-equilibrium state of other organ systems.

Next: Summary of saMkhya kArika



  1. That's a great blog on Samkhya and the relation of Samkhya with Thermodynamics!!
    It's wonderful that there are similarities in how everything around us work, from the universe, to biology, to people, etc. And how the three gunas have an important role to play in. I remember that in our discussions, you had referred to Sattva as 'spin', Rajas as 'charge' and Tamas as 'mass'. I see how they correlate: 'spin' symbolises more randomness or entropy; 'mass' symbolises less of that or negative entropy and 'charge' sees more work done.
    I have doubt. If Sattva was supposed acquire preponderance everywhere, then why did material particles (with mass) evolve? Isn't that supposed to be Tamasic?

    Also, from our last discussions, I came to know that some of the Vedic understanding of particles was revised. For example, you had said that Mitra-Varuna doesn't denote quark-gluon plasma (which is denoted by amsu), but it denotes cooper pairs. So, can you upload a blog that shows your revised understanding of particle physics from the Vedic perspective? And can you blog more about verses from the Vedas invoking these particles?

    Just one more question. Today, science is searching for answers that can help reconcile quantum theory with Einsteinian Gravity. Some of the more prominent proposed models are string theory and quantum loop gravity. Initially, string theory won a lot of appreciation from the scientific world for beautifully explaining quantum gravity using strings. But now, superstrings have almost become synonymous with pseudoscience because of lack of evidence. Do the Vedas favour the quantum loop model, or the superstring theory? And how do they reconcile it?


  2. Wow some great thoughts.

    Sattva is not supposed to acquire preponderance everywhere. Sattva (Entropy or dis-order or more information) acquired preponderance (as various types of quarks and then hadrons manifested increasing information or disorder) at the beginning due to Electro-weak symmetry breaking and Higgs field acquiring Vev.

    I still map mitra to cooper pairs, varuna to pions/mesons and mitra-varuna to Some plasma (or a plasma in which cooper pairs and mesons co-exist) and amzu as soma-stalk, the gluons, soma as strong force.

    As of now I don't find any evidence towards the quantum loop model or superstring theory at this point of time.


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