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Aditya Hrdayam - Part 56 - Fields and Particles


It is important before I proceed with saMkhya kArika translation, I set the background of the quantum world which it refers to, so that the beauty of saMkhya kArika could be appreciated.

The three domains

There are three domains. The quantum domains, the classical domain and the cosmology domain. All three worlds are governed by thermodynamic principles of energy and enthalpy, though each one of them have their own nuances.

It is the property of mass (Vishnu) that manifests differently in different domains and evolve the Universe.

In the Quantum world it is the Higgs field interaction. In the Classical world it is 'inertia'. In cosmology it is 'Gravity'. Thus Vishnu is called 'Tri-vikrama', the one who sets up order over the three domains. ‘Krama’ means order. Vikrama is one who sets that order. Tri-vikrama is one who sets that order in all three domains.

In this blog let's look at some of the concepts in Quantum domain.

Fields and particles

A field is a distribution of some quantity over space and varying with respect to time. It is called 'Rudra' or 'Vibration' or 'howling'. 

Wherever this quantity is present more at some point and at some time, it is called the 'Quanta' of the field. It is an 'excited' state of the field. This Quanta is what is called as 'particle' manifestation of a field.

For eg. in an electromagnetic radiation (light), energy is distributed across the electromagnetic field. At some points in the field energy is in excited state and available more. These are the 'quanta' of EM field and called photons.

Scalar (Spin 0), Vector (Spin 1), Spinor (Spin ½) fields

This quantity that is distributed can be 'Scalar', 'Vector', 'spinor' or a 'tensor'.  Many of the rivers and Oceans mentioned in the puranans are simply these fields.

A scalar is a quantity that has only magnitude and no direction. For eg. 'mass' (Vishnu), 'energy' (Shiva) are scalar quantities. They have only a magnitude (value) and no direction. They are distributed through scalar fields. An example of scalar distribution is a standstill ocean.

A vector is a quantity that has magnitude and direction.An example of vector distribution is a normal ocean or river.

A spinor is a quantity that inverts itself after moving around 360*. An example of a spinor distribution is our hand.

A tensor is a generalization of a scalar and a vector. A tensor field is a generalization of a scalar field or vector field that assigns, respectively, a scalar or vector to each point of space.

Scalar fields

kSiroda sAgar - Standstill Ocean - Higgs

A distribution of scalar quantity is like a 'Ocean of milk' (kSir sAgar) in which the content does not move, but is standstill. Assume there is an Ocean of thick milk or foam in which there are no 'waves', which means there is no movement. Quantities such as pressure, density, temperature varies in this ocean. But they are scalar quantities that have only magnitude and no directionality. 

kSiroda sAgar is the scalar field in which kSira, thickened milk (say foam) is distributed (da-giving). A thickened milk like distribution has only a magnitude or value but no movement and hence no direction. It is the Higgs field, which is a scalar field.

'mass' is a scalar particle with only magnitude and no direction that is distributed by the kSira-da sagar. 'mass' is the 'kSira' that is distributed. 

In some vaishnavic schools, mass is called 'kSirodakSayi vishnu'. The Higgs scalar field acquired a value during Electro-weak symmetry breaking. This manifestation of Higgs field Vacuum Expectation Value is called kSir sAgar manthan. More about it later.

karanoda sAgar - jyotir Linga - Dark Energy

karana means instruments. I translated the three types of antaH karana as potential energy, kinetic energy and change in entropy. These instruments (karana) become the cause (kArana) of all the evolution in the Universe.

While potential energy and kinetic energy are related, entropy is information content, which is different from energy. But it is also linked to energy in a way.

Change in Entropy is inversely proportional to already existing 'absolute' temperature, the average kinetic energy of a body, for a given energy input. Put simplistically, raise in entropy or information content for a hot object is very less compared to raise in entropy or information content for a cold object.

Thus the three antaH-karanas raise from the same source, which is 'Energy'. The scalar field distribution which gives this energy is called 'karana-da' sAgar.

In some vaishnavic schools, karanodakSayi Vishnu or Maha-Vishnu is called the paramatma for 'Samasti prakrti' for all the jiva's material natures. In essence it is the provider/distribution of energy/Shiva.

In Shiva Puranas, this scalar field of Energy distribution is called 'Jyotir Linga'. Here jyotir Linga, the scalar field that distributes energy is said to be superior to the kSirodaksayi Vishnu (Vishnu the Higgs field) and Garbhodaksayi Vishnu (Brahma the expanding Spacetime).

This scalar field distribution does not exist today in Standard Model. But it exists in Quintessence Model where there is a dark energy scalar field that gives 'energy', a scalar quantity to other fields.

garbhoda sAgar - Gravitational scalar potential

Spacetime i s the uterus of this Universe. It is called Hiranya-garbha, the golden Uterus in which ll energy and mass evolves. This Hiranya-garbha when expands is Brahma.

Energy or mass curves or bends the spacetime and reduces the distance between objects which is called the 'distortion of spacetime curvature'. The bending of space-time reduces the distance between the objects. The work needed to be done or energy required to move an object from one point to another point reduces as distance between objects reduces. 

The energy required to move an object from one point to another is called gravitational potential. This energy is a scalar quantity. 

The gravity potential is the scalar potential associated with the gravity per unit mass, i.e., the acceleration due to the field, as a function of position. The gravity potential is the gravitational potential energy per unit mass.

A plot of gravitational potential around the body lookss like below figure. This distribution of gravitational potential around every object is a scalar distribution and is called garbhoda sAgar.

In some vaishnavic schools, Brahma/spacetime warping is called 'garbhodakSayi Vishnu'.

Vector fields - Rivers and Waters

A distribution in which a vector quantity is distributed is called the vector field. A vector quantity is one which has a 'magnitude' and 'direction'. For eg. force is a vector quantity as we should specify the amount and the direction in which it is acting.

The Vector fields are depicted as 'rivers', ‘Waters’, Oceans with waters

Apa - The electromagnetic vector field experienced by a point charge

For eg., for every point in space, a magnitude and direction for the force experienced by a charged test particle at that point results in a vector field called the electromagnetic field. This field experienced by charged/particles is called 'Apa' in Vedas.

Apa is interpreted as 'Celestial waters'. Celestial waters or Apa is an example of a Vector field. As water moves/flows in an ocean with waves, virtual photons move in this Electromagnetic field with varying magnitudes and directions

Sarasvati - The fictitious gravitational vector field

Modern science models the warping/bending/curvature of Spacetime due to energy and mass and subsequent reduction of distance between two objects as a 'force-field' called 'Gravity'.

This Gravitational force-field, which is a 'fictitious' force-field generated by a massive object is also a vector field. In puranas, this 'fictitious' non-existing vector force-field is called as river 'saras-vati'. Note that Sarasvati is visualized as 'river' with flowing 'water' and hence a vector field.

Note that garbhoda sAgar is NOT the fictitious gravitational field between objects as described in the text books. The gravitational field between objects described in the text-books is a 'vector' quantity and is the river Sarasvati.

While Sarasvati as a river is 'fictitious', the effect of Sarasvati between two objects is to cause their movement and thus influences entropy/information content. It is entropy or information content that manifests as 'Knowledge'. Hence Sarasvati is also known as goddess of knowledge (flow of content).

The above figure is attributed to

Figure a is vector field of gravitation between two astronomical bodies. Figure b is vector velocity of water on the surface of river.

Vector fields as Weapons and instruments

Another depiction of Vector fields which distribute Vector quantities with magnitude and direction are weapons or instruments of gods.

Sudarshan Chakra, Trishula and Pushpaka Vimana are some of the weapons of gods. Sudarshana Chakra is weak force vector quantity, Trishul is the electromagnetic vector quantity and Pushpaka vimana is the gluon field vector quantity.

More on it later..

Spinor field - Conch - Spin ½ fermions

Scalar and Vector are force-fields. Spinor is the field that gives the particles of Universe like Quarks, electrons which make all the Universe.

A spinor field is like a 'Conch'. In a spinor field if one moves around 360* they will get inverted. An example of spinor field is our hand.

Extend your hand such that it is 'palm up', Now start rotating it, right to left in clockwise direction such that after 360* rotation it is still 'palm up' You will find that after 360* rotation your hand has got totally inverted !!!. After one 360* rotation in the same way, your hand will come back to normal position.

That is a spinor field. That is symbolized by a 'Conch'.

Take a 'Conch' (right or left-handed). Visualize a person standing on the body of the conch, on an outside whorl and visualize him walking around. After the external rotation is over, the person will have move on the internal whorls. Now he will be standing upside down. After completing the internal whorl rotation, the person will come back to normal position.

A right handed chiral particle and a left handed chiral particle

A spinor field distributes its energy (wave function) in a spinor way, like a Conch. Fields in which spinor quantities (wave functions) are distributed is a spinor field. A spinor quantity/particle is one that needs 2 360* rotations to come back to normal.

Fundamental particles like Quarks and Leptons arise out of this Spinor field. These fundamental particles wave function distribution are symbolized by the 'Conch'.

Conch is assigned as a primary identification of Vishnu, the mass caused by Higgs field, simply because Quarks and Leptons acquiring 'mass' is what Universe is all about.

If Quarks and leptons exhibit spinor movement similar to Conch, then they also bring in one of the key characteristics of the Conch.

That is Spin and Chirality.


This internal energy distribution structure of quark or electron (which has not been seen or proved) to be like that of a 'Conch' is my supposition. Currently we can use it as an analogy. But it is possible that they are indeed in the shape of a 'Conch'.

Since the energy distribution of these spinor fields can be assumed to be similar to a conch, we can see that they are continuously moving around themselves thus causing an intrinsic angular momentum. This intrinsic angular momentum is called the 'Spin'.

This 'Spin' is called 1/2 spin. The term 1/2 actually signifies that they need 2 rotations to be back to initial state.


Every Conch also has a 'handedness'. They are either left-handed or right-handed. This handedness property is present in Quarks and Leptons along with the 'Spin'.

Every Quark can either be right-handed or left-handed. Every electron, positron, neutrino can be right-handed or left-handed.

Since these particles are continuously spinning around, this Chirality is not seen, but perceived as 'Helicity'.


Visualize an energy distribution similar to a left-handed Conch being held in left-hand. The forward direction is the direction of the 'head' of the conch towards which our thumb extends.

The left-handed conch would appear to be spinning in a 'Clock-wise' direction (Conch head towards our mouth) for an external observer. This clock-wise movement is called left-handed helicity.

A left-handed Chiral particle with clockwise helicity

In the same way, a right-handed Conch that is held in right hand (Conch head towards mouth) would appear to be spinning in a 'counter-clockwise' direction. it is called right-handed helicity.

For massless particles before Higgs field manifestation, Chirality and Helicity were one and same.

Particles of spinor fields (Suras/Quarks and Asuras/Leptons) moved at speed of light as Higgs field (Vishnu) did not impede their movement. In that case, any observer would be able to see only one helicity, either right or left-handed.

This helicity is same as Chirality before the kshir sagar manthan, which is when Higgs field acquired vacuum expectation value. More on in later..

Spin 1 field particles - Chakra

Fermions are described by Spinors (Conch) which is spin-½ particles. Bosons are Spin 1 particles. The best representation of a boson is a ‘Wheel’ or ‘Chakra’.

Unlike a spinor in which after 360* rotation an object is inverted, in bosonic fields an object comes back to its original form after 360* rotation.

The vector fields such as Weak force, Strong force and Electromagnetic force have ‘quanta’ or particle manifestation which have Spin 1. These are all Chakras.

  • Weak force boson is the Sudarshan Chakra.
  • Strong force boson (gluon) is the Pushpaka Vimana.
  • Electromagnetic force boson (photon) is the Trishula.

All three symbolize movement and are vector bosons. All three are ‘Chakras’ in the sense they are Spin 1 or bosonic particles.

But only Sudarshana (Weak boson) alone is called a ‘Chakra’, because only it is held by Vishnu or interacts with Higgs field. It is a massive spin 1 particle. The pushpaka vimana and tri-shula are massless and hence the chakra/wheel notation is not given to them.

Vishnu with Conch and Chakra

Vishnu is the Higgs field. It interacts with fermions, the spinor field (Conch) particles which are spin-½ particles. It also interacts with a weak force vector field (Sudarshana) particles, which is often identified as a ‘Chakra’, which are spin 1 particles.

More to come