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Aditya Hrdayam Again - Part 42 - Soma Rudra - The gluon field


This series is an attempt to interpret the Vedic slokas in a framework of quantum physics. The underlying understanding is that the Rg Vedic slokas actually explain the cosmic events of the early Universe.

My translations are either aligned to those made by Griffith (but in a different background framework) or aligned to Srila PrabhupAda’s translations in Srimad Bhagavatam (again in a different background framework).

Energy is Shiva. Momentum is shakti. Energy and Momentum are the Ardha-nareeswara as they can never be separated.  Those that satisfy the energy-momentum relationship lie on the ‘Linga’ and are called ‘real’ particles or ‘Nara’. Those that do not satisfy are virtual particles and called ‘Manas’.

‘Atman’ in vedas is the extremely virtual in Quantum mechanics. ‘Manas’ are the ‘virtual particles’ in Quantum mechanics. Soma is the strong force. Asvin are the twin-headed electromagnetic field. Apa is flood of virtual photons that flow across in an electromagnetic field. Asva are the high energy electromagnetic radiations. Vajin are the high speed, high energetic electromagnetic gamma rays.  Go/Ga or Cows/Cattle are those similar to Asva but travel at lower speeds. Go/Ga or Cows/cattle are the massless goldstone bosons, the ‘excitations’ of the field in broken symmetry. Since they travel slower they were called colder or ‘himAya’.

Nara are the ‘real’ particles as compared to manas the virtual ones. Manushya are those that possess ‘manas’ or virtual particles. Hence all beings made of atomic nucleus which possess ‘manas’ (virtual pions) are manushya.

Soma is the strong force. Pavamana is the filtered strong force or nuclear force. Devas are matter. Asuras are anti-matter. Indra are baryons. Varna are mesons (half-deva, half-asura). Mitra are quark-pairs. Rudra are vibrations of force-fields.

Hiranyagarbha is spacetime. Hiranyagarbha/spacetime bends to Energy/Shiva thereby altering the path of Energy(Shiva). hus Shiva/Energy dances on the spacetime. This bending of Hiranyagarbha or spacetime manifests as a ‘gravitational pull’ or ‘Brahma’.  Thus  Brahma is gravity.

Shakti (Momentum) manifests as ‘mAyA’ or rest-mass.  Vishnu is the property of mass caused by Higgs mechanism.  Mass caused through the Higgs mechanism also bends the spacetime. That is, Hiranyagarbha bends to Vishnu also.  

The Brahma or Gravitational pull manifests between the center of massive objects. Thus Brahma is said to be born from the ‘Nabhi’ or navel or center of Vishnu.

The gravitational pull is caused by the impact of these mass through Higgs(vishnu) or energy (shiva) on the spacetime (Hiranyagarbha). Thus Vishnu (Mass through Higgs) or Shiva (Energy) are equivalent.

The ‘mass’ by Strong force (Soma/Shiva) and Higgs (Vishnu)

Rudra are vibrations of force-fields filled with energy. Hence Rudra (force-fields) is synonymous to Shiva (Energy). Any force field is a form or representation of energy or Shiva.

If Soma is the strong force, then Soma Rudra is the gluon field or strong force field.  Thus the Soma Rudra or gluon field is also a  representation or form of Shiva or Energy.

The property of mass is acquired by particles like quarks, leptons and guage bosons through Higgs mechanism. This mass provided by ‘Higgs’ mechanism is the Vishnu.

But the primary mass of atoms (of which everything in this Universe is made of) comes from the Strong force field or gluon field that surrounds the protons and neutrons in the nucleus.

Soma Rudra or Gluon field (Shiva) and Higgs mechanism (Vishnu) both provide mass.  Thus Shiva (Energy) and Vishnu (Higgs mechanism) are equivalent in providing mass or causing gravity.

How does Quark and gluon bind..?

The soma or strong force resides only in quark based matter. It resides as Soma Rudra, the gluon field in the Quark based matter.  Quark based matter can said to be the ‘house’ of Soma or Soma Rudra where strong force resides. Leptons (Electrons, neutrinos etc) are not affected by Soma or strong force. In other words Soma or strong force resides in quark based matter and not leptons.

Gluons ‘mediate’ the Soma or strong force. They are the ‘Soma-stalks’ or pipes that carry the soma or strong force.

Quarks and Gluons possess a property called Color Charge.  There are six types of color charge of the gluonic fields arbitrarily labelled Red, blue, green, anti-red, anti-blue, anti-green. Each quark carries a particular color. The gluons carry a combination of a color at one end and anti-color at another end. Gluons glue the quarks and antiquarks of different colors together forming color-neutral particles like mesons, protons, neutrons, anti-protons and anti-neutrons.

This system of attraction and repulsion between quarks charged with different combinations of the six colors is the strong interaction or the strong force, which is mediated by force carrying gluons.

In other words Soma or strong force is ‘drunk’ by the quarks and gluons through the mechanism of Color Charge.

How Strong force field or Soma Rudra provides mass..?

For eg., protons are made of 2 up quarks and 1 down quark and Neutrons are made of 2 down quarks and 1 quark. Apart from these valence quarks, they are surrounded by a Gluon field in which ‘sea quark and anti-quark’ pairs appear and disappear. Sea quarks form when a gluon of the hadron's color field splits; this process also works in reverse in that the annihilation of two sea quarks produces a gluon. The result is a constant flux of gluon splits and creations colloquially known as "the sea".

The sea of gluon field surrounding the baryons and mesons are the Soma Rudra.  The mass of protons and neutrons comes primarily from this gluon field or Soma Rudra that keeps producing and annihilating sea quark pairs.  The contribution of mass from the valence quarks is very little compared to the gluon field for the overall mass of baryons and mesons.

Chiral Symmetry breaking and Varuna the pions or the Ga/Cow

Universe was a hot dense Quark-Gluon-Plasma to begin with. The Quarks were massless as gluons. The Universe possessed several symmetries including electro-weak, higgs and chiral symmetry.  Then the symmetries started breaking.

Post Electro-weak symmetry breaking and Higgs symmetry breaking, Universe Quarks had little mass due to their coupling with Higgs field.

In this stage of the Universe quarks and gluons remain ‘un-bound’ and are said to be in ‘de-confined’ state. As the Universe cools and energy comes down, the quarks and gluons can no longer remain unbound. They become bounded or ‘Confined’.

When they were unbound they had color charges. When they become bounded they formed ‘color-neutral’ bound states. Color neutral Pions which are Quark-Antiquark pairs form during this state. These pions are charged (couple with electromagnetic field) or neutral (do not couple with EM field).

Post this confinement, the Quark-Gluon-Plasma becomes a Quark or a pion (quark-antiquark) condensate. Pions are the Goldstone bosons of Chiral symmetry.  They are the Ga/Co or cows. They are called ‘Varuna’ or ‘Mesons’ or ‘Pions’ in Vedas.

Around this time of ‘confinement’,  the chiral symmetry started breaking spontaneously first and then explicitly (because pions have mass though very small).   Chiral symmetry breaking leads to formation of ‘massive’ protons and neutrons (from this pion or quark condensate) which are the nucleons that form the atomic nucleus. The pion condensate spontaneously breaks down to form baryon (proton, neutron) bound states.

As we saw in the previous sections, protons and neutrons are not just three valence quarked baryons. They have a huge gluon field or ‘soma rudra’ around them which gives most of the mass of these nucleons.  This ‘background’ gluon field is actually the quark condensate (as quarks and antiquarks keep appearing/disappearing in this field) or a pion condensate (condensate of quark-antiquark pions).

Thus post the liberation from Varuna’s pAsa (Entanglement from pions or pion condensate), Soma Rudra or the gluon field around the baryons is said to guide or lead the Universal evolution. In other words the pion condensate (varuna) recedes to background and Soma Rudra (gluon field around baryons) leads the Universal evolution of matter.

Why is Soma (Strong force) called Chandra (Moon)..?

There are two types of luminous bodies in the Universe. Those that generate light like stars and those that reflect light like moon or planets or gas clouds.

All the luminous mass in the Universe that reflect light are provided by the Strong force field or Soma Rudra. Hence Soma Rudra is called the ‘Moon’ or Chandra, the one that reflects light or photons.

Photons mediate electromagnetic field but does not possess color charge. Gluon fields possess color charge but not electric charge. Hence photons and gluon field cannot interact. Photons that impinge on a gluon field would get reflected away from gluon field.

Since gluon field that surrounds the valence quarks  form the nucleons and provides bulk of the mass of Universe, does not interact with photons and reflect them away, Soma Rudra, the strong force field is also called Chandra. Chandra is Moon, the reflector of light.

The quarks and anti-quarks produced from a gluon field (if they are not annihilated immediately) can interact with electromagnetic field and can possess charge. These quarks and anti-quarks can absorb photons and emit photons. But the gluon field in which quarks and antiquarks are produced and annihilated continuously reflect away the photons.

Eka pAda - The  elementary bosons (Paritcles)

The elementary bosons like gluon, photon, Higgs are ‘One-Part’ beings. It means they are their own anti-particles. They do not have separate anit-particles.

DvipAda - The elementary fermions (Particles)

The elementary fermions are Quarks and Leptons. They are two part beings. They appear in pairs as ‘particle-antiparticle’. They have distinct particles and anti-particles unlike the elementary bosons.

TripAda - Baryons (Particles)

Baryons made of three quarks are TripAda or three part beings. They are protons, neutrons, anti-protons and anti-neutrons.

ChaturpAda - The force-fields (Waves)

Chatur pAda are four part or four component beings. The force-fields are called ChaturpAda as all force-fields are four component beings. A field is a mapping from spacetime x, y, z, and t to a field space or a target space.

• The strong force/gluon field which exhibit symmetry breaking. A continuous broken symmetry leads to a Goldstone boson, called Ga/Go or Cows. Example are pions in chiral symmetry breaking.

• The four-vector electromagnetic (Maxwell) field Aµ(x, y, z, t) called Asva (Horse).

• Dirac spinor field  in which quarks and leptons (fermions) appear called Uksana (Bulls). In  Quantum mechanics: ψ(x, y, z, t) is the Schr¨odinger wavefunction. This field space is that of complex functions.

Thus Chatur pAda, the four legged animals are actually force-field spaces of the early Universe. The strong force/gluon fields are the Cows, the four-vector fields are the Horses and the Dirac-spinor fields that leads to fermions are the Bulls.

Shiva  - The Pazu Pathi

All these force-fields, Asva, Uksana and Go  together are called ‘Pazu’, the cattle. Shiva the Energy is the 'Pati' of all these force-fields. All these force-fields are filled with energy. Shiva/Energy is the ‘Pati’ or ‘Leader’ of Asva/Horse (Electromagnetic force-field), Uksana/Bull (Dirac spinor field) and Go/Cow(scalar field in which spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs).

Soma Rudra - The Ashta Murthi

Soma Rudra, the gluon field is called Ashta Murthi because there are eight types of gluons. There are eight types of gluons based on the combination of color charge the gluons acquire.

Dvipada and Catuspada in Rg Veda Mandala 1 Hymn 121

Rgveda Mandala 1 hymn 121.03 says “dyÀm catuspade naryÀya dvipÀde”.

The very early Universe was Universe filled with various four component force-fields or the CatuspAda or the four legged beings.  It was filled with Dirac-spinor fermonic fields (out of which Quarks, leptons pop out), four-vector fields (Electromagneticc fields) and scalar fields that exhibit spontaneous symmetry breaking.
DyAm is this very early Universe in which ‘Devas’ dwell. The early Universe was colloquially interpreted as ‘heaven’ in the later days. Agni (Exchange forces), Varuna (Mesons), Indra (Baryons), Soma (Strong force), Mitra (Quark pairs) that dwell in this early Universe were understood as ‘Gods’ in the ‘Heaven’.

Thus it is said “dyAm catuspade”
The current Universe is made of real particles (nara) or fermions which are called dvipAda.  Hence it called “naryAyA dvipade”.

Dvipada and Catuspada in Rg Veda Mandala 10 Hymn 117

Rgveda Mandala 10 hymn 117.08 says “ekapÀd bhUyo dvipado vi cakrame dvipÀt tripÀdam abhy eti pazcÀt  catuspÀd eti dvipadÀm abhisvare sampazyan panktIr upatiSThamÀnaH”

It means “The ekapAd cycles/repeats dvipAd again and again, the tripAdam comes after the dvipAd, catuspAd comes when dvipAda invokes them, (when) seen together The FIVE is situated/concretizes”.

eKAPAd like gluons and photons become dvipAd (quark-antiquark pairs) which can annihilate and become ekapAd again. This cycle can go on again and again. This is ‘ekapAd bhuyo dvipado vi cakrame”

The baryons arise after the quark-antiquark production. This is “dvipÀt tripÀdam abhy eti pazcÀt”

The force-fields are invoked from dvipAds like Quarks and Leptons. This is  “catuspÀd eti dvipadÀm abhisvare”

The Five - Panktir - Pancha Bhoota - States of matter around us

The Universe that is around us is made of Pancha Bhootas. The five are “Prthvi, Jal, vAyu, Agni and Akash”.

The Pancha Bhootas actually refer to the 5 states of matter. All beings (Bhutas) in this universe are of one of this Pancha bhotas.

There are 5 states of matter in which all Universal matter (or beings) can be classified into. They are Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensate (Superfluid).

Prthvi corresponds to Solid state of matter. Hence it is translated as ‘Earth’.
Jal Corresponds to Liquid state of matter. Hence it is translated as ‘Water’.
vAyu corresponds to Gaseous state of matter. Hence it is translated as ‘Wind’.
Agni corresponds to Plasma state of matter. Hence it is translated as ‘Fire’. The state of Fire is indeed ‘Plasma’.

Akash corresponds to Bose-Einstein Condensate state of matter or Superfluid. Hence it is translated as Space. Space is viewed as ‘Superfluid’ or a state of matter called ‘Bose-Enistein Condensate’. This theory is called Superfluid theory and a lot of research is going on in it.

When EkapAda (elementary bosons), dvipAda (Elementary fermions), tripAda (Baryons), ChaturpAda (four component scalar, vector fields and quantum wavefunctions) of the early Universe come together or seen together, the pancha bhootas (states of matter of current Universe) get concretized.  This is “sampazyan panktIr upatiSThamÀnaH”

The eight Vasus -  States of matter in early and current Universe

Vasu is a ‘place’ or ‘residence’ or ‘stable dwelling’. In the parlance of science a ‘stable dwelling’ is a ‘state of matter’.  In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct stable forms that matter takes on. It is a form in which the matter dwells.

There are eight states of matter or eight Vasus. Of these eight, the Universe around us is predominantly formed by five states of matter. These five states of matter are called the pancha bhoota.

They are the Prthvi, Agni, Jal, Vayu, Akasha corresponding to Solid that makes the earth, Plasma that is fire, Liquid that is water, Gas that is wind and Bose-einstein condensate/superfluid that makes the space.

The five vasus corresponding to the above are dhAra (Solid/Prthvi), Anala (Plasma/Agni), Anila (wind/vAyu), Apa (Liquid/Jal) and Antariksha (Space/Akasha),

There are three more vasus or states of matter in the early Universe that is called ‘Dyaus’ or ‘Dyam’ or ‘Dyau’. They are  Quark Gluon Plasma, Color Glass Condensate matter and Degenerate matter.

The Quark-Gluon-Plasmic state of matter exists immediately after the Big Bang. It is called ‘Praty-uSa’ which means before the dawn.

The Color-Glass-Condensate matter that exists in the atomic nucleus, in which every incoming particle colliding with nucleus always see a ‘gluon wall’ is dhruva. Dhruva means stationary or fixed.

The Degenerate matter that exists in high pressure environments like a black-hole is called ‘Pra-bhAsa’. It means before the lights or darkness.

The eight Vasus are thus eight states of matter comprising from early Universe to the Universe as we see it now.

Sapta Ratnas - The seven properties

Sapta Ratnas are said to be properties of Agni (which I translate as exchange forces/bosons which act through ‘virtual’ exchange particles).

The Sapta Ratnas are also said to be properties provided by Soma Rudra (gluonic field). The properties of gluon field (Soma Rudra) in common with any exchange force (Agni) are

  1. Mass
  2. Spin (intrinsic momentum)
  3. Electric Charge (or) Color Charge
  4. Helicity
  5. Chirality
  6. Frequency
  7. Velocity

Hence these ‘could’ be the Sapta Ratnas or Seven properties of the Soma Rudra (gluonic field) or exchange force (Agni). I may revisit this again in future.

With all these background info, let’s understand the Sloka on Soma Rudra, Rg Veda Mandala 6 Hymn 74.

Summary of Soma Rudra - Rg Veda Mandala 6 Hymn 74

Sloka: The force-field of Soma or the gluon field holds all these anti-matter (asuryam). They desirously/wishingly   consume/enjoy them (anti-matter or asuryam) as spokes.

Science: When chiral symmetry breaks, the universe which was a quark antiquark condensate,(referred to as asuryam here) forms protons and neutrons. The gluon-field around the protons and neutrons (referred to as soma rudra here) now holds the quark-antiquark pairs (asuryam) as they get formed and annihilated repeatedly. Thus the quark-antiquark pairs become internalized in the gluon field like spokes of a wheel.

Sloka: Every house that (Soma resides) has the Seven properties (ratnas). Beings of dvipAda (quark-antiquark pairs, lepton pairs) and beings of caturpAda (four component force fields) are at rest or at peace/happy with these properties.

Science: In every proton and neutron around which the gluon field resides it provides the seven properties like any exchange force field. The seven properties are mass, color charge, spin, helicity, chirality, frequency and velocity.  The quark-antiquark pairs in gluon field (referred to as dvi-pAda here) and the gluon field (referred to as caturpAda here) become stable.

Sloka: The force-field of soma enters our distressed residence when it was hugely/largely going apart in different directions. Those spokes that hindered (Asuryam) are evacuated out by Soma rudra or gluon field. our good fortunes become well-flowing

Science: When the Quark-Gluon-Plasma cooled down by spreading around, losing energy, the confinement of quarks and gluons takes place. Around this time the chiral symmetry also breaks forming protons and neutrons with ‘massive’ gluon fields around them.

Sloka: The gluon field, youngest of these, Universally expands, as provider of cures. From there, occurs that release (from asuryam) which expands by creation of our bounded beings.

Science: The gluon-field expands more and more as bounded beings (protons and neutrons) form more and more in that pion condensate

Sloka: The Soma Rudra with its sharp-weaponed, pointed shot/impact auspicious elevation becomes our earth/soil (on which other beings thrive).  When the release from asuryam or varuna’s pAsa or entanglement is complete, Soma Rudra, the well-intentioned one, is caused to lead the herd.

Science: The gluon-field which produces elevated beings like protons, neutrons, which are the nucleons of atomic nucleus becomes the soil on which all matter and beings of Universe evolves. When chiral symmetry breaking down in complete, the quark/pion condensate has completely become filled with baryons and anti-baryons (protons, neutrons, anti-protons and anti-neutrons). The Universe is now in hadron epoch.

Soma Rudra - Mandala 6 Hymn 74

somārudrā dhārayethām asuryaṃ pra vāmiṣṭayo.aramaśnuvantu |
dame-dame sapta ratnā dadhānā śaṃ no bhūtaṃ dvipadeśaṃ catuṣpade ||

somArudrA - The force-field of Soma
dhAraya - holds
etAm  - these
asuryam - anti-matter
Pra - completely
vAm - emit, give forth
iSTaya - wishing
aram - spokes, sudarshana disc, resting place
Aznuvantu - they enjoy, they consume/eat

The force-field of Soma or the gluon field holds all these anti-matter (asuryam). They desirously/wishingly   consume/enjoy them (anti-matter or asuryam) as spokes.

dame dame - In house after house, every house
sapta ratnA - seven treasures
dadhAna - provider, giver
zam no bhutam - beings ending, resting at
dvi pada - two divisioned / two quadrant(Quarks and Leptons)
sam - ending at, resting at
catuspade - four divisioned/ four quadrant (Four fundamental Bosons - Higgs, Photon, W+, W- and Z Bosons,  Strong/Weak/EM/Higgs )

Every house that (Soma resides) has the Seven properties (ratnas). Beings of dvipAda (quark-antiquark pairs, lepton pairs) and beings of caturpAda (four component force fields) are at rest or at peace/happy with these properties.

somārudrā vi vṛhataṃ viṣūcīmamīvā yā no gayamāviveśa |
āre bādhethāṃ nirtiṃ parācairasme bhadrā sauśravasāni santu ||

somarudra - the force field of soma
vrhatam- large (bRhatam)
viSucim -  going apart in different directions, spreading everywhere
amIvAya -  disorder, disease, tormenting spirit
nah gayam - our residence
avivesa - entered

The force-field of soma enters our distressed residence when it was hugely/largely going apart in different directions.

Are - The spokes
bAdha etAm - those hindrances
nRrtim -  wife of adharma,  what goes out (evacuated out), decay
paracair - away, aside, off
asme - our
bhadrA - good fortunes, happiness
sauzravasAni - from su-zravas -well flowing
santu - may become, will become, becomes

Those spokes that hindered (Asuryam or anti-matter) (Soma rudra or gluon field) evacuates them out. our good fortunes become well-flowing

somārudrā yuvametānyasme viśvā tanūṣu bheṣajāni dhattam |
ava syataṃ muñcataṃ yan no asti tanūṣu baddhaṃ kṛtameno asmat ||

somarudra - the force-field of soma
yuvam - youthfulness, young
etany - all these
asme  - our
visva - Universal
tanUSu - manifest, expand
bheSajani - of medicine, of cures
dhattam - provider

The gluon field youngest of these, Universally manifests/expands as provider of cures/medicines.

ava - downwards of, post
syatam -  they appear, they become, they occur
muncatam - gives away, release, liberate (given away, released, lost)
yad - that which
nah - we, us, our
asti - becomes
tanUsu - manifest, expand
baddham - bondage, arrest
Krtam - done, created, made
ena - by doing, by making, by creating
asmat - our

Downwards/From there, occurs that release (from asuryam) which expands by creation of our bounded beings (more and more).

The gluon field, youngest of these, Universally expands, as provider of cures. From there, occurs that release (from asuryam) which expands by creation of our bounded beings.

tighmāyudhau tighmahetī suśevau somārudrāviha su mṛḷataṃ naḥ |
pra no muñcataṃ varuṇasya pāśād ghopāyataṃ naḥ sumanasyamānā ||

tigma - sharp
Ayudhau - weaponed
tigma - sharp
Heti - impact
su-zeva - auspicious Elevation/Height/Linga
somarudra -
iha - here
su - auspicious
mRDatam - clay/soil/earth
nah - our, us

Sharp weaponed, Pointed  impacting/shot (causing) auspicious elevation, the force-field of Rudra here is our clay/soil/earth (on which everything exists).

pra no muncatam - Completely liberating/releasing from/loss of
varunasya pAsAd - varuna’s bond, varuna’s entanglement
gopAyatam- herdsmanship, guardianship, protection, leading the herd, acting as herdsman, causing to lead the herd/guard
nah - our
sumanasyamAna - good minded one, well-intentioned one

The Soma Rudra with its sharp-weaponed, pointed shot/impact auspicious elevation becomes our earth/soil (on which other beings thrive).  When the release from asuryam or varuna’s pAsa or entanglement is complete, Soma Rudra, the well-intentioned one, is caused to lead the herd.